The ‘Smoking Gun’ on the Dangers of Cannabis

Before we discuss the dangers of Cannabis (a.k.a. marijuana, weed, grass, herb etc.), here are a few questions:

What would happen if you were to put a frog in a pot of hot water? (Don’t try this. It’s cruel!) Answer: It will jump out immediately, as it senses the danger.

What will happen if you put a frog in a pot of cool water? It will just sit there, quite happily.

What will happen if you warm that water very slowly while the frog is in? It won’t perceive the danger, as it happens very slowly, so, according to the boiling frog legend, it will just stay in, become accustomed to the hotter temperature, and eventually get boiled alive!

Boiling frogs - smoking weed

The boiling frog legend has become a common and powerful story (a metaphor) to illustrate the inability of people to become aware of threats that arise very slowly. A study has since shown that the frog will eventually jump out when the water gets too hot. (1) Thankfully! However, I haven’t found any studies yet on frogs that smoke weed, and how they would or would not react, as cannabis seriously affects your brain.

When it comes to humans, scientific studies HAVE shown that cannabis, (while it is making people feel very calm, relaxed and “high”) contributes to a reduction in alertness and self-conscious awareness, and a decline in IQ, especially when started in the teenage years. (2)(3) Also, a study by psychologist Mikael Kowal on the effects of cannabis on dopamine-related functions, such as creative thinking, showed that regular users of cannabis are less aware of their own mistakes, and they are not good at creative thinking. (3a)

This has many negative affects on how we think and make decisions. For teenagers especially, it decreases their school performance and increases the risk of dropping out of school. The highlight from one scientific study showed that “Cannabis use accounted for a greater proportion of the overall rate of educational underachievement than alcohol use.” (4)

alcohol-vs-marijuana-500x366

Another study, done on more than 4,000 students, found that those who lost access to legal marijuana showed substantial improvement in their grades. (5)

This effect on our brains is besides many other adverse effects, as covered below. But first, let’s look at the biggest danger of weed.

The biggest danger of cannabis

The biggest danger of marijuana is its deceptive nature. It is a mind-altering, psychoactive drug, but its immediate effect on people is not nearly as intense as most other drugs, and it is almost impossible to overdose on it. Therefore many people don’t consider it dangerous. But immediate effect is just a tiny part of the whole picture. Once it’s taken you off your guard by making you feel good, it then starts messing with your brain and body.

An actual story of how this happens is sometimes more relevant than the research studies, which are included later. Here is Page Johnson’s story:

“When I was using medicinal grade marijuana from dispensaries, I defended the drug vigorously–even though I knew it was negatively impacting my quality of life. Though I could still function, and my productivity was not significantly impacted, my ability to fluidly process information and communicate slowed, I developed rings under my eyes, my eyes were always dry, my heart frequently palpitated out of sync, and most importantly I showed signs of pre-psychosis such as mania (getting over-the-top hyped about various ideas), paranoia (I feared a home invasion and went crazy with security measures), and my mind was often saturated with morbid thoughts (which I fixated on and couldn’t shake for days at a time). What kind of thoughts? Dark thoughts that became so frequent that I actually begin to think I might be going crazy. While this was happening I was on social media defending the drug against critics, sharing its many medicinal benefits, and downplaying its dangers by comparing it to alcohol and tobacco. I was rolling along in that state of dishonesty and hypocrisy when suddenly my brother, a lifelong marijuana user, shot himself to death, leaving behind a beautiful family, a successful business, and a trail of pain and sorrow. I quit cold turkey when I learned that a psychologist had previously told him to stop using marijuana because it was causing psychosis. After I quit, my health and outlook improved dramatically within days. I then began researching the relationship between marijuana and psychotic episodes and was astounded by what I found. I am now standing firmly against marijuana and doing everything I can to make people aware of its dangers. (6)

You can see how it took quite a while before Page became aware of how badly weed was affecting her, and fortunately she jumped out of the hot water in time, so to speak, unlike her unfortunate brother. So marijuana can be deadly, in many ways. The research in ref (4) above showed that daily marijuana use below age 18 is connected to 7 times the risk of attempted suicide before age 30. Parents Opposed to Pot reported that Dr. Steven Simerville, head of pediatrics at a Pueblo hospital in Colorado, has spoken about the connection between marijuana and teen suicide. In October, 2016, he said that all but one of the teens who attempted suicide had THC in their toxicology reports. (7) Another research study stated that “Globally, suicide has emerged as the second leading cause of death among youth aged 10-24 years old.” (8)

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS)

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) is recurrent nausea, vomiting, and cramping abdominal pain due to cannabis use. Complications may include kidney failure and electrolyte problems. Deaths due to these complications have occurred. This occurs mainly with long-term and regular cannabis use. The only effective remedy so far (as of Nov. 2019) is to stop using cannabis. However, even once stopped, it may take up to two weeks before the CHS symptoms stop.(8a)

Other Dangers of Cannabis

There are 33 cancer-causing chemicals contained in marijuana. Marijuana smoke also deposits tar into the lungs, up to four times as much as tobacco smoke (9) and contains 50% to 70% more cancer-causing substances than tobacco smoke. (10)(11) As time goes on, it can cause respiratory diseases and mental disorders such as schizophrenia. (12) It harms babies in the womb, is addictive and is a major “gateway drug” that leads to harder drugs. (See more details and supporting references on “The Quick Facts on Marijuana” page.)

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main psycho-active chemical in marijuana and other cannabis products. Cannabis edibles can have ingredients like hash oil, which can have up to 90% THC content, whereas the THC in marijuana smoke rarely goes above 30%. (13) So the majority of effects mentioned on this website apply to both smoke and edibles. (The effects of edibles are usually delayed, often by around two hours.)

CBC (cannabichromene) and CBD (cannabidiol) are some of the other many cannabinoids in cannabis, and are linked more to the health claims of medical marijuana. So called ‘medical marijuana’ has a higher concentration of CBD and a lower concentration of THC than recreational marijuana. (13a) As THC is the main danger to people’s health, only recreational marijuana will be discussed on this site. Keep in mind, though, that medical marijuana still has THC in it, plus tar and many of the other toxic chemicals found in recreational marijuana, just in lower doses.

The short-term effects of marijuana, while you’re enjoying your “high,” include problems with memory and learning, distorted perception, difficulty in thinking and problem solving. (14) And you get bloodshot eyes as a bonus. Do you remember Richard Rojas, the guy who drove through a crowd of people in Times Square, New York with his car, killing one person and injuring 20 on May 18, 2017? Police found, and he later admitted, that he used synthetic marijuana laced with PCP before the event. (15)

Times square

So once the “high” from marijuana becomes “normal,” there is a strong temptation to move on to more potent forms of weed or narcotic drugs, and a higher potency means that the effect on their brains and perception becomes even more pronounced.

The Munchies

A common effect of smoking weed is to get “the munchies,” where people feel very hungry, and they tend to eat a lot, which can possibly cause you to gain weight. Weed really messes with your brain. The initial effect is to slow your appetite, but then another reaction soon overpowers it and makes you hungry. Here’s an interesting video which explains this concept: Why weed gives you the munchies

The Bottom Line

While weed is giving people a high and making them feel so good, it is simultaneously lulling them to sleep and gradually destroying parts of their body and mind. But due to the effect on their brains and nervous systems, they become less aware that this is happening, so they think everything is just fine.

Spiritual Aspects of Marijuana

Spiritual Aspects of Marijuana-500

Marijuana is not only detrimental to your body and mind, but also to your soul and spirit. Eventually we will all learn that “we” are not our bodies. We are the consciousness that uses our body as a driver drives a car. Our consciousness is our character, our ingenuity, our sense of humour etc. which is part of our soul and spirit. It is the part of God that is within us. We were created in the image and likeness of God. When our body gets sick, it greatly restricts the ability of our spirit to shine through us and help and motivate others.

The whole reason why we are alive is to learn and grow spiritually and share our spirit to help make this world a better place. I strongly believe that we all have a certain reason for being born, with a mission that only we can fulfill, due to our unique character and spirit.

So when our body and mind become toxic and impaired, which is what eventually happens from marijuana and other harmful substances, it makes it all the more difficult to be able to fulfill the reason for which we were born.

Renowned spiritual leaders Mark and Elizabeth Clare Prophet said this about weed: “Relying on their own personal experiences, marijuana users believe that it is harmless because they perceive no difficulties. They do not perceive the difficulties because their faculties of perception are being destroyed while they use it. And so they have a receding level of the ability to discern within themselves levels of their own God-awareness. Day by day they perceive no harm because marijuana is destroying not only the physical senses but the senses of the soul. This is one of the most subtle dangers of marijuana and most other psychedelic drugs. The user is rendered incapable of detecting the changes in himself. … And having lost the tie to life, the way is opened to experimenting with heroin and other hard drugs.” (16)

The Dangers of Cannabis for Our Future

Cannabis in the history of Egypt

egypt

Cannabis researcher Dr. Gabriel Nahas found that some of the greatest effects of widespread marijuana use were felt in Egypt long ago. (The research quoted below is from events that happened in the 13th century and is not a reflection on the wonderful current-day Egyptian people.) Dr. Nahas says: “According to the Arab historian Magrizy, hashish was first introduced in the thirteenth century at a time when Egypt was flourishing culturally, socially, and economically. First, the drug was accepted and used primarily by the wealthier classes as a form of self-indulgence. When the peasants adopted the habit, though, it was as a means of alleviation of the dreariness of their daily life.” (17)

It’s difficult to know exactly what effect cannabis had on Egypt, but Dr. Nahas continues, “the appearance of cannabis products in the Middle East did coincide with a long period of decline during which Egypt fell from the status of a major power to the position of an agrarian slave state, exploited by a series of Circassian, Turkish, and European rulers. As often happens, the very decline of the nation prompted the increased use of what may have hastened its fall.” (18)

Eventually, Egyptian rulers took radical steps to try to outlaw cannabis, but it was too late. The population was non-responsive. Napoleon ran into the same problem. After the French conquered Egypt in 1798, one officer noted, “The mass of the male population is in a perpetual state of stupor.”(19)

Boiling frogs - smoking weed - chat

A Major Wake-up Call

This story of Egypt is a major wake-up call to us today! We may think that in our modern, advanced society today in the West that the fate of Egypt will not happen to us. That’s probably exactly what the Egyptians thought when they were a major world power.

It’s time for us to get some spine and some enlightened courage and take a strong stand to stop this infestation of marijuana into our society that will contribute to destroying our youth, who are our future, and destroy our principles and way of life. We all know this at a soul level. But doing something will take us out of our comfort zone. The trouble with comfort zones is that if we stay there, they lead to complacency and eventually to death, the death of the soul and then the body, which is exactly the way marijuana works.

Those who support and promote marijuana have a long list of reasons why they think it is a good idea, and you will hear them all when you take a stand against it.

We have so much going for us without drugs. We were created in the image and likeness of God. We have the inner potential to achieve as much or more than any of the great geniuses, leaders and inspired examples who have gone before us. Our destiny is reunion with God, as we are God’s children. But we’ve been brought up believing the mass media that life is all about getting more possessions and acknowledgement (including social media likes) and comfort from something outside of us. It is not. We already have God within us, no matter what religion or path we follow. Life is about developing and using the talents we already have to give to others, including helping those who are being drawn in to all these activities and substances that are not of God. In a way, this is Armageddon of the soul. We need to fight with all our might to turn around the drug culture, among other things, and especially marijuana, as its deceptive nature is pulling so many people in.

We have lots of resources to roll back this marijuana culture. Besides lots of ways you can take action with the technology and resources we have today, we also have abundant spiritual help. God will not go against our free will, so the angels are waiting with bated breath to be called into action in answer to our prayers, no matter what religion or no religion. We need a balanced and practical approach to turn this cannabis threat around. A key is education, so please share this website with others.

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Note:
After reading the above, you may think it insane to legalize marijuana or to use it as medicine. Or you may think it is no problem at all. It is up to you to interpret the facts and views presented here, and to take action as you see fit. Actions speak louder than words!

“The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” – Edmund Burke

The “Quick Facts on Cannabis” page. (Follow this link to find the research and references on the effects of cannabis.)

 

References
(1) ‘Next Time, What Say We Boil a Consultant’. Fast Company Issue 01. October 1995. Retrieved 2017-11-07. (Link)
(2) Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SRB. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med. 2014; 370(23):2219-27.
(3) Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RS, McDonald K, Ward A, Poulton R, Moffitt TE Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 2; 109(40):E2657-64. – ‘Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife.’ (Link)
(3a)Universiteit Leiden: Mikael Kowal, research on the effects of cannabis on dopamine-related functions, such as creative thinking and the ability to recognise one’s own mistakes. PhD defence, 6 October, 2016. Link
(4) E. Silins et al. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, November 1, 2015 Volume 156, Pages 90–96, ‘Adolescent substance use and educational attainment: An integrative data analysis comparing cannabis and alcohol from three Australasian cohorts.’ (Link for graphic.)
(5) Olivier, Marie and Ulf, Zölitz – ‘High’ Achievers? Cannabis Access and Academic Performance’ – 27 March 2017 – The Review of Economic Studies, Volume 84, Issue 3, 1 July 2017, Pages 1210–1237. (Link)
(6) Confession of a Former Marijuana User on stoppot.org: www.stoppot.org
(7) Parents Opposed to Pot – Marijuana Use is Linked to Increased Suicide Risk. (Link)
(8) Van Ours, JC, Williams, J, Fergusson, D, and Horwood, J. ‘Cannabis use and suicidal ideation.’ J Health Econ. 2013; 32: 524–537. (Link)
(8a) Chocron, Y; Zuber, JP; Vaucher, J (19 July 2019). “Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 366: l4336. (Link)
(9) Wu T-C, Tashkin DP, Djahed B, Rose JE. Pulmonary hazards of smoking marijuana as compared with tobacco. N Engl J Med 1988;318:347–351.
(10) ‘Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,’ Mayo Clinic, Aug 2006.
(11) National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofacts [2004].
(12) Hall, W. (2015), ‘What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?’ Addiction, 110: 19–35. doi:10.1111/add.12703.
(13) Inciardi, James A. (1992). The War on Drugs II. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 1-55934-016-9.
(13a) Alice Mead J.D. LL.M. ‘The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law’ published in Epilepsy & Behavior, May 2017.
(14) Drugs of Abuse – 2015 Edition: A DEA Resource Guide pg 72. (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration).
(15) ‘Times Square driver was apparently high on synthetic marijuana (K2) at time of pedestrian crash’ abc7ny.com on Friday, May 19, 2017. (Link)
(16) Prophet, M. and E.C. – “Paths of Light and Darkness” pg 46. Summit Publications Inc. (Volume 6 of Climb the Highest Mountain series.)(summitlighthouse.org and Expose)
(17) Gabriel Nahas, Keep Off the Grass: A Scientist’s Documented Account of Marijuana’s Destructive Effects (New York: Reader’s Digest Press, 1976), pp. 14–15.
(18) Ibid
(19) Ibid

The Quick Facts on Cannabis

Caution: Be prepared for an interesting and possibly frustrating read, and be prepared to use your own discretion. Why? Because medical science is not a totally objective and exact science. And the research on cannabis is one of the most controversial subjects ever. There are lots of studies concluding that marijuana or cannabis is harmful in many ways, and lots concluding that it is safe.

Table of Contents

Overview on the Research
Substances Contained in Cannabis
Storage in the Body
Causes Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome – CHS (Can be fatal.)
Causes Mental Health Problems
Opposing research on mental health
Causes Impaired Thinking
Opposing Research on Impaired Thinking
Contributes to Accidents
Cannabis is Toxic to Children
Smoked Marijuana Causes Lung Injury
Causes Cancer
Opposing Research on Cancer
Addiction, Withdrawal and Gateway Drug
Opposing research on Addiction and Gateway Drug
Results in Increased Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
No Better than a Placebo, 20 Studies Show
References

(For the references in the text, hover over the reference number to see the summary. Click the reference number to get to the References section. Many will include links to the original source.)

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Overview on the Research

There is evidence that some studies rely heavily on non-scientific anecdotes such as surveys and interviews. This is particularly true in the “marijuana is good for you” camp. One place where this is documented is the testimony of Dr. Janet Lapey during the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Crime – Medical Marijuana Referenda Movement in America on October 1, 1997. She documented some of the non-scientific anecdotes, including by Dr. Lester Grinspoon, who was on the board of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1)

This brings up another issue with the research, that of conflict of interest. How objective can your research be if you serve on the board of a pro-marijuana organization? (An interesting fact about NORML was included in Dr. Lapey’s testimony: In 1979, Keith Stroup, NORML’s founder, told an Emory University audience that they would be using the issue of medicinal marijuana as a red herring to give marijuana a good name. (2) (A ‘red herring’ is something that misleads or distracts from a relevant or important issue.)

Dr. Lapey also noted that he tobacco industry promoted cigarettes as “medicine” until the Federal Trade Commission halted the practice in 1955. (1 again.)

What really needs to be done is a whole research study on the methodology used in the research done on marijuana and cannabis. But for now, you will have to use your discretion when reading the research.

Substances Contained in Cannabis

There are 33 cancer-causing chemicals contained in marijuana. Marijuana smoke also deposits tar into the lungs, up to four times as much as tobacco smoke. (3)

Marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more cancer-causing substances than tobacco smoke. (4)(5)

One major research study reported that a single cannabis joint could cause as much damage to the lungs as up to five regular cigarettes smoked one after another. (6)

Storage in the body

THC, the active chemical in cannabis, is stored in the fat cells and therefore takes longer to fully clear the body than any other common drug. (7)

THC is stored in the blood for several months in regular users. (8)

Causes Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome – CHS (Can be fatal.)

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) is recurrent nausea, vomiting, and cramping abdominal pain due to cannabis use. Complications may include kidney failure and electrolyte problems. Deaths due to these complications have occurred. This occurs mainly with long-term and regular cannabis use. The only effective remedy so far (as of Nov. 2019) is to stop using cannabis. However, even once stopped, it may take up to two weeks before the CHS symptoms stop. (8a)

Causes Mental Health Problems

A definitive 20-year study into the effects of long-term cannabis use by Prof. Wayne Hall, published in 2015, found that Cannabis doubles the risk of developing psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. (9)

In research done by Volkow ND et al. (10a) and Meier MH et al. (10b), marijuana is also linked to a reduction in alertness and self-conscious awareness, and a decline in IQ, especially when started at a young age. Marijuana has caused psychosis, depression, panic attacks, hallucinations, paranoia, hostility, depersonalization, flashbacks, decreased cognitive performance (i.e. thinking slower or not as clearly), disconnected thought, delusions, and impaired memory. (11)(12)(13)(14)

It affects children and teenagers much worse than adults

The negative effect of marijuana use on the functional connectivity of the brain is particularly prominent if use starts in adolescence or young adulthood.
(15)

A team from New Zealand found that those who had used marijuana on as few as three occasions by the age of 15 doubled their risk of developing schizophrenia by the age of 26. A study of 50,000 members of the Swedish army found that those who used marijuana heavily at age 18 were six times more likely to develop schizophrenia over the next 15 years. The risk doubled after using the drug only 5 to 10 times. (16)

One study found an association between frequent use of marijuana from adolescence into adulthood and significant declines in IQ (your intelligence level). (10b again)

Opposing Research on Mental Health

Federally sponsored population studies conducted in Jamaica, Greece and Costa Rica found no significant differences in brain function between long-term smokers and non-users. (17)

Causes Impaired Thinking

Some of the short-term effects of marijuana are impaired body movement, difficulty with thinking and problem-solving, impaired memory, altered sense of time and changes in mood. (18)

Loss of coordination and poor sense of balance, and slower reaction times, along with intoxication. (19)

Opposing Research on Impaired Thinking

The Canadian Medical Association Journal published an article in April 2002 which found that Marijuana smoking, even long-term, does not harm intelligence. (20)

A 1999 study of 1,300 volunteers published in The American Journal of Epidemiology reported “no significant differences in cognitive decline between heavy users, light users, and nonusers of cannabis” over a 15-year period. (21)

Contributes to Accidents

Marijuana is a major contributor to accidents. A study by Soderstrom CA of 1023 trauma victims revealed that marijuana had been used by 34.7 percent. (Refs 22). A study of 182 fatal truck accidents revealed that 12.5 percent of the drivers had used marijuana. (Refs 23) A study at the Einstein Trauma Center (Philadelphia) found 37% of admissions positive for cannabis. (Refs 24) A roadside study, conducted in Memphis, Tennessee, of reckless drivers not believed to be impaired by alcohol, found that 45 percent tested positive for marijuana. (Refs 25) A study conducted at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, found that 31 percent of the 106 motorcyclists treated for injuries tested positive for marijuana. (Refs 26)

THC (the principal psychoactive constituent of marijuana) was found in the blood of more than 30% of fatally injured drivers. (27)

Cannabis is Toxic to Children

A research study has documented pediatric toxic reactions caused by accidental ingestion of marijuana. From those children in the study, two were admitted to an intensive care unit. (28)

Smoked Marijuana Causes Lung Injury

Research shows that smoking marijuana causes chronic bronchitis and marijuana smoke has been shown to injure the cell linings of the large airways, which could explain why smoking marijuana leads to symptoms such as chronic cough, phlegm production, wheeze and acute bronchitis. (29)(30)(31)

Frequent marijuana-only smokers have more healthcare visits for respiratory conditions compared to nonsmokers. (32)

Causes Cancer

Marijuana causes cancer. This includes cancer of the lungs, mouth, throat and tongue, including metastatic epidermoid carcinoma in the lungs, head and neck carcinoma and upper aerodigestive tract malignancy. (33)(34)(35)(36)(37)

Opposing Research on Cancer

Donald Tashkin, a UCLA pulmonologist, hypothesized in a study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that the chemical THC may prevent the cancer-causing chemicals in marijuana smoke from negatively affecting the body: “We don’t know for sure but a very reasonable possibility is that THC may actually interfere with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.” His study relied mainly on questionnaires filled out by certain groups. (38)

Addiction, Withdrawal and Gateway Drug

Many people say that Cannabis is not addictive. That is not true. The 20-year study by Prof. Wayne Hall showed that one in ten adults who regularly smoke the drug become dependent on it and those who use it are more likely to go on to use harder drugs. He also said that if cannabis is not addictive then neither is heroin or alcohol. Concerning withdrawal, he said: “It is often harder to get people who are dependent on cannabis through withdrawal than for heroin – we just don’t know how to do it.” (39)

There are also several other studies that show that Marijuana is addictive (40) and leads to the use of other drugs, such as cocaine. (41)

There is a whole organization of people who are working to stop their addiction to marijana: Marijuana Anonymous. Their website says: “Who is a marijuana addict? We who are marijuana addicts know the answer to this question. Marijuana controls our lives! We lose interest in all else; our dreams go up in smoke. Ours is a progressive illness often leading us to addictions to other drugs, including alcohol. Our lives, our thinking, and our desires center around marijuana—scoring it, dealing it, and finding ways to stay high.”(42)

Withdrawal symptoms include ones typical of other drugs, including difficulty concentrating, irritability, urges to use, difficulty sleeping, depression, vivid dreams, anger, headaches, sweating, coughing and decrease in appetite. (43)

Opposing Research on Addiction and Gateway Drug

A new study has attempted to assess the risks of various drugs, such as looking at how addictive and toxic they are in terms of acute and chronic use, using a new technique called the “Margin of Exposure” (MOE) method. According to the results, cannabis is around 114 times less deadly than alcohol and was the only drug out of those examined to pose a low risk of death. (44)

According to Maia Szalavitz of Vice.com, a recent study on rhesus monkeys suggests that being forced to take marijuana may actually make taking heroin less attractive and rewarding—and monkeys are a far closer model to humans than rats are. (45)

Results in Increased Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

A study in 2023 showed that cannabis use was related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. (46)

No Better than a Placebo for Treating Pain, 20 Studies Show

A study in 2022 showed that in 20 separate studies, cannabis was no better than a placebo for treating pain. (ref: 47) (47)

–**–

Note:

After reading the above, you may think it insane to legalize marijuana or to use it as medicine. Or you may think it is no problem at all. It is up to you to interpret the facts and views presented here, and to take action as they see fit. Actions speak louder than words.

“The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” – Edmund Burke

Also: Do not assume that just because you have some scientifically researched facts about marijuana etc., whether you are in the pro or anti-pot camp, that sharing it with people in the other camp will convince them to change. Besides the conflicting research, some people have a stronger allegiance to a cause than they have to the truth.

Boiling frogs - smoking weed-a-500

References

Note: Some links to web pages change over time. The links below were valid at time of publication.

(1) Marijuana Subcommittee Hearing – Dr Janet Lapey in the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Crime – Medical Marijuana Referenda Movement in America on October 1, 1997. (Link)

(2) Emory Wheel, February 1979. (Marijuana Subcommittee Hearing – Dr Janet Lapey in the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Crime – Medical Marijuana Referenda Movement in America on October 1, 1997. (Link)

(3) Wu T-C, Tashkin DP, Djahed B, Rose JE. Pulmonary hazards of smoking marijuana as compared with tobacco. N Engl J Med 1988;318:347–351.)

(4) “Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,” Mayo Clinic, Aug 2006)

(5) National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofacts [2004])

(6) “Additional Marijuana Facts,” University of Southern California, May 2015. (PDF Link)

(7)National Health Service website “NHS Choices.” (Link)

(8) “Additional Marijuana Facts,” University of Southern California, May 2015. (PDF Link)

(8a) Chocron, Y; Zuber, JP; Vaucher, J (19 July 2019). “Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 366: l4336. (Link) and (Wikipedia )

(9) Hall, W. (2015), “What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?” Addiction, 110: 19–35. doi:10.1111/add.12703.)

(10a) Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SRB. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med. 2014; 370(23):2219-27. (Link)

(10b) Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RS, McDonald K, Ward A, Poulton R, Moffitt TE Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 2; 109(40):E2657-64. – “Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife.” (Link)

(11) Schwartz RH. Pediatric Clinics of North America 34: 305-317, 1987.

(12) Cherek DR et al. Psychopharmacology 111: 163-168, 1993.

(13) Andreasson S et al. Lancet 2: 1483 1485, 1987.

(14) Schwartz, RH et al. Am J Dis Child 143: 1214-1219, 1989.

(15) Effect of long-term cannabis use on axonal fibre connectivity. Zalesky A, Solowij N, Yücel M, Lubman DI, Takagi M, Harding IH, Lorenzetti V, Wang R, Searle K, Pantelis C, Seal M Brain. 2012 Jul; 135(Pt 7):2245-55. (Link)

(16) Andréasson S1, Allebeck P, Engström A, Rydberg U. Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet. 1987 Dec 26;2(8574):1483-6. (Link)

(17) E. Russo et al. 2002. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: an examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 2: 3-57.

(18) National Institute on Drug Abuse, February 2017. (Link)

(19) “Additional Marijuana Facts,” University of Southern California, May 2015. (PDF Link)

(20) The Canadian Medical Association Journal)

(21) Media Awareness Project – Cannabis Use and Cognitive Decline in Persons under 65 Years of Age (Link)

(22) Soderstrom CA et al. Archives of Surg 123: 733-737, 1988. Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among 1023 Trauma Patients.

(23) Department of Transportation. National Transportation Safety Board Report, Washington D.C., February 5, 1990.

(24) Lindenbaum, G et. al. Patterns of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in an Urban Trauma Center, Journal of Trauma. V29( 12), 1654-59, 1989.

(25) Brookoff D et al, Testing Reckless Drivers for Cocaine and Marijuana, New Eng J Med 331: 518-522, 1994.

(26) Soderstrom CA et. al., Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders Among Seriously Injured Trauma Center Patients, JAMA. 277 (22): 1769–74, 1997 Jun 11.

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